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Title IX – Sports
The interpretation of Title IX in sport and education is shrouded in controversy. Title IX was designed with the intention of ensuring equality in sport between men and women. While it seems obvious that some sort of equalization mechanism is needed, there has been quite a bit of controversy in education regarding the interpretation of Title IX. Sports in particular contain numerous examples where Title IX led to the end of college sports teams – all in a misconstrued attempt to equalize sports for both genders.
Rod Paige, the Secretary of Education, established the Commission on Athletics Opportunities in mid-2002. The COA, for short, is responsible for ensuring equity for all college athletes by finding ways to improve application and increase opportunities for beneficiaries. The main objective of COA was to collect information, have it analyzed and obtain public comments with the aim of ensuring that men and women, boys and girls have the same opportunities and their involvement. in athletics.
In the leadership of the COA were Cynthia Cooper and Ted Leland who served with Rod Paige as co-chairs. Cynthia, a former Houston Comets player, coached the WNBA’s Phoenix Mercury and was a member of the women’s basketball team at the 1988 and 1992 Olympics. Leland is Stanford University’s athletic director.
The COA held 4 meetings at town halls in San Diego, Atlanta, Colorado Springs and Chicago. The purpose of these meetings was to allow the public to share their thoughts on Title IX at the time, in the past and in the future. At the beginning of 2003, the commission issued its final report. The report included 23 recommendations to the Education Secretary. Most of the recommendations were unanimous, but the most controversial ones were adopted by 8 votes to 5. The controversial votes related to the compliance of athletes without scholarships to the 1st strand test as well as the authorization of surveys of interest for determination of tier 3 compliance. Rod Paige, however, said he would only consider votes passed unanimously. These required the Ministry of Education to:
* Show continued and unwavering support to ensure that boys and girls, women and men have equal opportunities.
* Ensure uniform application of the law across the United States.
* Ensure that each of the 3 tests that governed compliance with the law had equal weighting.
* Ensure that schools understand that National Education did not come up with the idea of cutting teams to respect the statute (Title IX, 2008).
Patsy T. Mink is the primary author of the Education Act which guarantees equal educational opportunity for all. The law which was formulated in 1972 was formerly known as Title IX Educational Amendments and it generally states that no one should be prevented from enjoying the benefits of any given educational program or activity. given who receives financial assistance from the federal government based on their gender. Title IX’s greatest impact was on high school and college level athletics, although the original law did not refer to athletics. The law broadly covers educational activities, complaints of discrimination in mathematics, science education, other aspects of university life, for example the possibility of using dormitories and other healthcare facilities. The same status applies to activities such as cheerleaders, clubs and school bands, which are non-sporting activities. The law’s requirements, however, exempt sororities and social fraternities like Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, and State Boys and State Girls, which are gender-specific (Title IX, 2008).
The administration under Jimmy Carter offered an interpretation of the law when the Department of Health, Education and Welfare proposed a “three-pronged test” of compliance for institutions in the late 1970s. The three strands are as shown below:
* 1st part – that the sporting opportunities offered are proportional to the number of students registered or
* 2nd prong – present increased athletic opportunities for the underrepresented sex or
* 3rd prong – underrepresented sexual interest as well as ability must be addressed fully and effectively.
To demonstrate adherence to Title IX, any institution receiving federal funds must demonstrate compliance with one of the three components (Title IX, 2008).
The federal government has issued new guidelines regarding the implementation of Title IX. Title IX allowed for increased participation of women in sports, but the new guidelines allowed schools to reduce athletic opportunities if they discover from Internet surveys that students are not interested.
However, critics were quick to point out that the new guidelines significantly weakened the 33-year-old law that had banned gender discrimination in schools receiving federal funds.
Under the new guidelines, the Department for Education has allowed schools to show they are providing opportunities by asking students to fill out a form on the internet to show their interest in the sport. Schools are free to notify students of a survey by email. In the event that polls get few responses, schools can still go ahead and use the limited responses to argue against forming new teams in a given sport of the gender that is not properly represented. For its part, the Ministry of Education agreed that the level of response may be low, but continued to state that this would be interpreted as disinterest by the gender in question.
Chaundry expressed concern that students might not actually open such an email. Not everyone was against the new guidelines, however, as College Sports Council director Eric Pearson said the new guidelines were a good alternative to the gender quota. He added that it would be easier for colleges and schools to make their case in court if they had fewer women in a given sports program compared to the total number of students in the school or college. The rule has caused controversy, particularly at some schools where lesser-played male sports, e.g. wrestling, had to be cut to balance the number of women and men participating in athletics given the total number of students in school or college.
Well, a lot of people would say Title IX was good for women’s sports. That’s largely true, but what was the price? The law was based on the premise that universities that received federal funding could not use gender as a means of discrimination. However, in trying to address the issue of women’s lower participation in sports, Title IX actually discriminated against men! This subject has already been discussed on several occasions: The Department of Health, Education and Welfare has required schools to ensure that sports selection as well as the level of competition take into account the abilities and interests of both sexes.
This is probably no surprise; men show more interest in sports than women, similarly boys show less interest in the drill team than girls. Some colleges have struggled to find enough women to play sports. To show this more clearly, a wrestling coach explained it this way, with 1000 boys interested in a given sport and 100 girls interested in the same sport, you will end up with 100 boys and 100 girls having the opportunity. This raises many questions. This question of proportionality is so strict that even without a purse, playing for a given team is impossible because the numbers will not balance.
The Office of Civil Rights implemented this rigor in proportionality in 1979. The original statute, however, makes it clear that Title IX should not be interpreted to mean that one sex should be discriminated against where there is an imbalance in the number of people. of both sexes practicing a given sport. Therefore, even with the benefits the law has brought to the sports arena, it has led to discrimination against men, especially in sports commonly referred to (mistakenly) as minors.
The past two years have seen significant progress in gender and racial equality. The pay differentials between members of different races have been under study for many years. Gender discrimination and the low representation of minorities in head coaching positions under the auspices of Title IX have been much discussed. This website wants to provide you with summaries of abstracts, reviews of academic literature and top news articles, etc. showing the disintegration of coaches with players in top professional sports leagues due to racism.
Many people continue to wonder if football in this country is institutionally racist, as generations past have faced racism in the NFL. Of the two hundred and seventy-six coaching and management positions in professional football, only a paltry six people are black. About twenty-two percent of players are African American, but only two percent are in management. The good part though is that management has recognized that there is in fact an issue that requires their attention. The Premier League, The Football Association, The League Manager’s Association and The Football League have partnered with the PFA. They agree that there is an urgent need to find all aspects of the selection criteria that could discriminate against black people so that in the future positions are filled solely on merit.
It is well known that Title IX aims to ensure the equality of female athletes with their male counterparts in different sports. However, it’s not just the sport; there is theatre, other extracurricular activities, a band, etc.
So for sports programs, here are the requirements of Title IX:
* Women and men should have similar opportunities in sport
*Women must receive equivalent or online funding/scholarship with their participation – this can be found in the Women’s Sports Foundation.
* Women should enjoy the same benefits as men. These include training, training facilities, travel and allowances, etc.
Title IX was designed to promote equality in sport between men and women. It helps to have some sort of equalizing force in place; however, there are many problems with how the courts interpret Title IX. Title IX has created quite a bit of controversy in education, and especially in sports. There are many instances where Title IX has resulted in the demise of some college sports teams. It is time to correct the loopholes and illogical fractions of Title IX.
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