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Teaching English in Italy: Some Challenges That Italian Language Learners Face When Learning English

I spent years studying the Italian language and running an Italian social club in Atlanta, Georgia. All along, I was an English as a Second Language (ESOL) teacher at various American schools for 21 years. Later I was employed in Italy as an English teacher for Italian students while in my spare time I wrote articles, poetry and fictional stories. The purpose of this article is to provide ESOL and TEFL teachers with some advice on the challenges that Italian speakers often encounter when learning the English language. Each group of people with a unique language background faces their own challenges, but there are specific mistakes that tend to be made by most Italian learners of English at the beginner and intermediate levels. If not corrected early, these errors will be difficult to unlearn later.

Until a student reaches an intermediate level of proficiency, it is difficult to explore literary analysis of English. This is why the first six months focus primarily on reading, writing, listening and speaking with some attention to grammar. I often use a bit of grammar to explain basic rules before putting those rules into practice for direct communication. Most Italian students are very concerned about grammar, although it is clear that grammar alone cannot be relied upon to speak fluently and clearly. After having had many experiences with the English and Italian languages, I have divided the main challenges that Italians face into four categories: (1) problems with the use of gerunds, -ing verbs and infinitives; (2) problems with the use of phrasal verbs; (3) challenges with the pronunciation of “-ed” and “th”; (3) problems of distinguishing between when to use the present tense and the present continuous; and (4) the innate concern of Italian students to learn the tenses of the conditional.

First of all, it is not easy for Italian speakers to decide which verbs should be followed by an -ing verb and which verbs should be followed by an infinitive verb. If teachers explore the Internet, they can find lists of these verbs, which must each be followed by either -ing forms or infinitive forms. If students spend time practicing these gerunds and infinitives that follow other verbs, they will do much better on tests such as the TOEFL and IALTs. Since students usually don’t know where to find these lists of verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives, it will be worth finding them for your students and keeping them for your files when they are useful. Students can learn to use these verbs correctly by practicing them. For example, the verbs “agree” and “consent” must be followed by infinitives. Therefore, one says: “I agree to sign the paper and I agree to buy the books.” On the other hand, the verbs “admit” and “practice” must be followed by gerunds. So, we say: “I confess to hiding the present, and I practice dancing.

One of the reasons Italians report difficulty using prepositions is due to the many English phrasal verbs that include prepositions as part of the verb. Here are some examples: putting, supporting, postponing and removing. Students should understand that phrasal verbs are like single words that work in pairs to create a unit with a specific meaning. Just change the preposition that follows the verb and the meaning of the verb will completely change. It is helpful to provide students with a list of common phrasal verbs and encourage them to start studying these pairs rather than introducing a few at a time. Many lists are available on the Internet and in books, so the sooner students become familiar with phrasal verbs, the better off they will be in the long run. English has a long list of phrasal verbs that can be easily confused.

The “th” sound is usually very difficult for Italians because this sound does not exist in their language. Luckily, most Italians learn the “th” sound when they have a native speaker give them one-on-one pronunciation lessons. That doesn’t really seem like a hindrance, but if Italian speakers aren’t told the correct sound early on, chances are they’ll keep making the “t” or “d” sounds at the place where one would normally pronounce “th” and this results in the pronunciation of wrong words like “tree” instead of “three”. Once students are introduced to the “th” and -ed sounds, they will be able to express themselves with much more confidence.

It is essential to point out to Italian students that the -ed at the end of gerunds and adjectives is usually a “t” or “d” sound unless -ed follows “t” or “d”. In other words, a term like “jumped” is pronounced “jumpt” as long as the letter “e” remains silent. The word “played” looks like “played” without the letter “e”. Students benefit from learning correct pronunciation early on, as such errors become more difficult to correct later. It can be quite difficult for speakers of a phonetic language like Italian to grasp the concept that English is not just a phonetic language but that there are other sound patterns that are quite different from their spellings. These patterns include digraphs like mb and th or trigraphs like dge, tch, and chr.

The issues faced by Italians learning English often differ from those faced by Spanish speakers learning English. Fortunately, Italians don’t express the “es” sound before vowels, a common error in Spanish, as in “eSpanish” or “especial”. Instead, Italians tend to add the “h” sound to certain words, between two vowels, when the “h” is not needed as in “go h-away” and they omit the “h” sound at the beginning of many words like “house”. Often the words “angry” and “hungry” are mispronounced to convey the wrong messages.

One of the first aspects of verb tenses that I explain in class is how English speakers constantly use the present continuous and how its use differs from the present simple. Any English speaker who has studied Italian in depth knows that Italians use the simple present tense to describe almost every action they describe regarding the present moment. While English speakers use the present tense to describe objects in the room, to describe regular events, and to explain a story they have read before, English speakers use the present continuous to describe an ongoing action they take in the moment. For example, English speakers say, “I’m sitting at the table drinking coffee and talking to my friend.” Instead, Italians say, “Mi siedo al tavolo dove bevo un café e parlo con mio amico”, which literally means: I sit at the table where I drink coffee and talk to my friend. If teachers do not point out that English speakers use the present continuous (to be + ing) to describe actions that occur, there is a risk that Italian speakers will continue to speak and write mistakenly in the present simple for years. coming. Of course, English speakers learning Italian are also likely to use the present continuous too often when speaking Italian if they are not made aware of the differences in usage.

For people who are just starting to learn English or to teach English, I recommend starting with the following verb tenses: present simple, present continuous, present perfect, past simple, future and future continued. Students will be eager to learn all the tenses immediately, but I believe these tenses will be the most convenient for a quick start. When I learned what I know of Italian 34 years ago, I started with the present simple and the infinitive form. I was playful with the language, and I would always suggest starting with a playful attitude when using English verb tenses. Sometimes you have to dive in and take risks to make lasting progress. After all, language is primarily a spontaneous communication tool that binds us together for the good of society as a whole if we just want to be patient.

There are four conditions that play an important role in the English curriculum, so if you are a new English teacher who intends to teach English in Italy, I would recommend being prepared to teach these four conditions (0, 1, 2, 3) before you start teaching formally in the classroom. The distinctions between the 0 and the 1st conditional are most important. The conditional 0 describes something usual that is repeated each time the condition occurs. For example: If it rains, I don’t water the plants. Instead, the 1st conditional describes something that happens once like: If it rains, we won’t work outside. Italian students tend to grasp the first two conditionals well because they correspond directly to Italian conditionals. The 3rd beat of the conditional is used to show something that is highly improbable without fulfilling a specific condition: if I won the lottery, I would write books. The 4th conditional is impossible because a past condition has not been met before: if I had remembered to study, I would not have failed the math test. I would recommend creating your own chart with examples of the four conditionals before the first day of class, and keeping it handy. Teachers can customize their own boards to meet the specific needs of their students based on their age, different cultures and language levels.

Personalizing your teaching will make lessons much more enjoyable for students. You will likely need to do some research to meet the needs of your class, as everyone is a unique individual with their own learning style. Teachers should not neglect to consider that different strategies work for different students and that a wide range of visual, audio, and kinesthetic experiences will be enjoyed.

Hopefully this summary of the main issues facing English learners in Italy will be useful to anyone deciding to teach English in Italy. The challenges that one language group faces vary from those of other language groups, so if you are teaching in Thailand, for example, the challenges will be different from those described in this article. Much of this knowledge is based on my study of the English and Italian languages ​​in a comparative way. I found the basic knowledge of the learner’s native language to be a useful tool that did not prevent me from using the English language as the primary means of communication in my lessons. Once you teach English in Italy, you will recognize the basic challenges outlined in this article and it should be easy for you to focus on the most important lessons you would like to teach.

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